Sejarah Kolintang

KOLINTANG SEJARAH


SEJARAH & PERKEMBANGANNYA

 

 

 

Kolintang merupakan alat musik khas dari Minahasa (Sulawesi Utara) yang mempunyai bahan dasar yaitu kayu yang jika dipukul dapat mengeluarkan bunyi yang cukup panjang dan dapat mencapai nada-nada tinggi maupun rendah seperti kayu telur, bandaran, wenang, kakinik atau sejenisnya (jenis kayu yang agak ringan tapi cukup padat dan serat kayunya tersusun sedemikian rupa membentuk garis-garis sejajar).

 

 Kata Kolintang berasal dari bunyi : Tong (nada rendah), Ting (nada tinggi) dan Tang (nada tengah). Dahulu Dalam bahasa daerah Minahasa untuk mengajak orang bermain kolintang: "Mari kita ber Tong Ting Tang" dengan ungkapan "Maimo Kumolintang" dan dari kebiasaan itulah muncul nama "KOLINTANG” untuk alat yang digunakan bermain.

 

 

 

Pada mulanya kolintang hanya terdiri dari beberapa potong kayu yang diletakkan berjejer diatas kedua kaki pemainnya dengan posisi duduk di tanah, dengan kedua kaki terbujur lurus kedepan. Dengan berjalannya waktu kedua kaki pemain diganti dengan dua batang pisang, atau kadang-kadang diganti dengan tali seperti arumba dari Jawa Barat. Sedangkan penggunaan peti sesonator dimulai sejak Pangeran Diponegoro berada di Minahasa (th.1830). Pada saat itu, konon peralatan gamelan dan gambang ikut dibawa oleh rombongannya.

 

Adapun pemakaian kolintang erat hubungannya dengan kepercayaan tradisional rakyat Minahasa, seperti dalam upacara-upacara ritual sehubungan dengan pemujaan arwah para leluhur. Itulah sebabnya dengan masuknya agama kristen di Minahasa, eksistensi kolintang demikian terdesak bahkan hampir menghilang sama sekali selama ± 100th.

 

 

 

Sesudah Perang Dunia II, barulah kolintang muncul kembali yang dipelopori oleh Nelwan Katuuk (seorang yang menyusun nada kolintang menurut susunan nada musik universal). Pada mulanya hanya terdiri dari satu Melody dengan susunan nada diatonis, dengan jarak nada 2 oktaf, dan sebagai pengiring dipakai alat-alat "string" seperti gitar, ukulele dan stringbas.

 

 

 

Tahun 1954 kolintang sudah dibuat  2 ½ oktaf (masih diatonis). Pada tahun 1960 sudah mencapai 3 ½ oktaf dengan nada 1 kruis, naturel, dan 1 mol. Dasar nada masih terbatas pada tiga kunci (Naturel, 1 mol, dan 1 kruis) dengan jarak nada 4 ½ oktaf dari F s./d. C. Dan pengembangan musik kolintang tetap berlangsung baik kualitas alat, perluasan jarak nada, bentuk peti resonator (untuk memperbaiki suara), maupun penampilan.

 

Saat ini  Kolintang yang dibuat sudah mencapai 6 (enam) oktaf dengan chromatisch penuh.

 

 

 

 

 

Peralatan & CARA MEMAINKAN

 

Setiap alat memiliki nama yang lazim dikenal. Nama atau istilah peralatan Musik kolintang selain menggunakan bahasa tersebut diatas juga memiliki nama dengan menggunakan bahasa Minahasa, dan untuk disebut lengkap alat alat tersebut berjumlah 9 buah. Tetapi untuk kalangan professional, cukup 6 buah alat sudah dapat memainkan secara lengkap. Kelengkapan alat tersebut sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

B   -        Bas           =                   Loway

 

C   -        Cello         =                   Cella

 

T    -        Tenor  1    =                   Karua

 

      -        Tenor 2     =                   Karua rua

 

A   -        Alto 1        =                   Uner

 

      -        Alto 2                 =          Uner rua

 

U   -        Ukulele/Alto 3 =            Katelu      

 

M   -        Melody 1  =                   Ina esa

 

      -        Melody 2  =                   Ina rua

 

      -        Melody 3 =                   Ina taweng

 

                                

 

 

 

MELODY

 

Fungsi pembawa lagu, dapat disamakan dengan melody gitar, biola, xylophone, atau vibraphone. Hanya saja dikarenakan suaranya kurang panjang, maka pada nada yang dinginkan; harus ditahan dengan cara menggetarkan pemukulnya( rall). Biasanya menggunakan dua pemukul, maka salah satu melody pokok yang lain kombinasinya sama dengan orang menyanyi duet atau trio (jika memakai tiga pemukul). Bila ada dua melody, maka dapat digunakan bersama agar suaranya lebih kuat. Dengan begitu dapat mengimbangi pengiring (terutama untuk Set Lengkap) atau bisa juga dimainkan dengan cara memukul nada yang sama tetapi dengan oktaf yang berbeda. Atau salah satu melody memainkan pokok lagu, yang satunya lagi improvisasi.

 

 

 

CELLO

 

Bersama melody dapat disamakan dengan piano, yaitu; tangan kanan pada piano diganti dengan melody, tangan kiki pada piano diganti dengan cello. Tangan kiri pada cello memegang pemukul no.1 berfungsi sebagai bas, sedangkan tangan kanan berfungsi pengiring (pemukul no.2 dan no.3). Maka dari itu alat ini sering disebut dengan Contra Bas. Jika dimainkan pada fungsi cello pada orkes keroncong, akan lebih mudah bila memakai dua pemukul saja. Sebab fungsi pemukul no.2 dan no.3 sudah ada pada tenor maupun alto.

 

 

 

TENOR I & ALTO I

 

Keenam buah pemukul dapat disamakan dengan enam senar gitar.

 

 

 

ALTO II & BANJO

 

Sebagai ukulele dan "cuk" pada orkes keroncong.

 

 

 

ALTO III (UKULELE)

 

Pada kolintang, alat ini sebagai ‘cimbal’, karena bernada tinggi. Maka pemukul alto III akan lebih baik jika tidak berkaret asal dimainkan dengan halus agar tidak menutupi suara melody (lihat petunjuk pemakaian bass dan melody contra).

 

 

 

TENOR II (GITAR)

 

Sama dengan tenor I, untuk memperkuat pengiring bernada rendah.

 

 

 

BASS

 

Alat ini berukuran paling besar dan menghasilkan suara yang paling rendah.

 

 

 

 

 

SUSUNAN ALAT

 

Lengkap (9 pemain) :

 

Melody                  -           Depan tengah

 

Bass                     -           Belakang kiri

 

Cello                     -           Belakang kanan

 

Alat yang lain tergantung lebar panggung (2 atau 3 baris) dengan memperhatikan fungsi alat (Tenor & Alto).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NADA NADA DASAR

 

Nada nada dalam alat kolintang sebagai berikut:

 

 

 

C   =    1    3    5          Cm     =       1    2    5

 

D   =    2    4    6          Dm     =       2    4    6

 

E   =    3    5    7          Em     =       3    5    7

 

F    =    4    6    1          Fm      =       4    5    1

 

G   =    5    7    2          Gm     =       5    6    2

 

A   =    6    1    3          Am     =       6    1    3

 

B   =    7    2    4          Bm     =       7    2    4

 

 

 

Sedangkan chord lain, yang merupakan pengembangan dari chord tersebut diatas, seperti C7         =          1      3    5    6, artinya nada do diturunkan 1 nada maka menjadi le . Sehingga saat membunyikan 3 bilah  dan terdengar unsur bunyi nada ke 7 dalam chord C, maka chord tersebut menjadi chord C7. Demikian pula dengan chord yang lain.

 

 

 

CARA Memegang pemukul/ stick kolintang

 

 

 

Memegang Pemukul Kolintang, memang tidak memiliki ketentuan yang baku, tergantung dari kebiasaan dan kenyamanan tangan terhadap stik. Tetapi umumnya memegang stick kolintang dilakukan dengan cara :

 

No. 1 Selalu di tangan kiri

 

No. 2 Di tangan kanan (antara ibu jari dengan telunjuk)

 

No. 3 Di tangan kanan (antara jari tengah dengan jari manis) – agar pemukul no.2 dapat digerakkan dengan bebas mendekat dan menjauh dari no.3, sesuai dengan accord yang diinginkan. Dan cara memukul dan disesuaikan dengan ketukan dan irama yang diinginkan, dan setiap alat memiliki, ciri tertentu sesuai fungsi didalam mengiringi suatu lagu. Pada alat Bass dan alat Melody umumnya hanya menggunakan 2 stick, sehingga lebih mudah dan nyaman pada tangan.

 

( Nomor nomor tersebut diatas telah tertera disetiap pangkal pemukul stick masing masing alat kolintang)

 

 

 

Teknik Dasar memainkan stick pada bilah kolintang sesuai alat dan jenis irama

 

 

 

Dari sekian banyak irama dan juga lagu yang ada, beberapa lagu sebagai panduan untuk memainkan alat musik kolintang disertakan dalam materi ini. Seperti:

 
  • Sarinande                 

  • Lapapaja                   

  • Halo halo Bandung

  • Besame Mucho

 

Lagu lagu tersebut memiliki tingkat kesulitan yang berbeda baik chord dan irama. Lagu lagu tersebut telah dilengkapi dengan partitur serta chord/ accord untuk memudahkan memahami alat musik kolintang.

 

 

 

Demikian pula dengan teknik memukulkan stick pada bilah kolintang. Karena sesuai irama yang beraneka ragam, maka untuk menghasilkan irama tertentu maka teknik memukulkan stik pada tiap alat pun berbeda beda. Pada materi ini, diberikan teknik teknik dasar cara memukulkan stick pada kolintang. Untuk dapat memahami teknik, dibutuhkan pengetahuan akan harga dan jumlah ketukan dalam setiap bar nada. Dan berbekal pengetahuan dasar dasar bermain kolintang ini saja, ditambah dengan bakat individu, maka grup/ kelompok musik kolintang telah dapat memainkan berbagai jenis lagu dengan tingkat kesulitan yang variatif secara spontan.





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